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Chris (Hunt)


  1. 子供たちの英語力を維持するか伸ばす
  2. 子供たちが英語を使うための動機を高める
  3. チームのアイデンティティを構築する
  4. クラスのアイデンティティを構築する


ごく少人数のクラスでは、チームもクラスも同じことです。人数の多いクラスでは、チームに分けると役に立ちます。4人のグループが最適です。ペアワーク(2人1組での取り組み)ができるからです。スペンサー・ケーガン博士は著書の Co-operative Learning(『協同学習』)の中で、性質(性別や性格、得意分野など)の違う生徒が集まった混成チームを作るべきだと指摘しています。博士はまた、協力型学習の4原則「P.I.E.S」を挙げています。

  1. 前向きな相互依存:
  2. 個々の責任:
  3. 公平な参加:
  4. 同時の相互作用:

子供が何かをうまくやったときや行儀が良かったときに褒美・報酬を与えるのは優れた方法とは言えません。アルフィ・コーンのPunished By Rewards(『報酬主義をこえて』)で指摘されています。お祝いをすることは大丈夫です。個人、そして特にグループが何かを達成したことを祝うと、クラスのアイデンティティが構築され、動機を育むことにつながります。褒美・報酬は「全員に行き渡らない」ことが基本となっているため、競争の種をまくことになります。お祝いには儀式的な要素が含まれる場合が多く、全員で楽しめる経験となります。



Beyond Competition

"The class that plays together learns together"

Chris (Hunt)

Most children like games and play them for their own sake. For the teacher, time is important so every game should do at least one of the following:

1. Maintain or increase the children's English ability
2. Increase the children's motivation towards using English
3. Build team identity
4. Build class identity

Not every game need give direct English practise. Identity is important because it increases the children's focus. When children see themselves as English speakers and users their motivation to use English will increase. Their ability will increase naturally. A sure sign is when children use English not just with the teacher but with each other.

In very small classes, the team and the class are the same thing. In large classes it helps to create teams. A team of four is best as it allows for pair-work. In Cooperative Learning, Dr Spencer Kagan, points out that teams should be heterogeneous. He also lists four principles of Co-operative Learning known as P.I.E.S:

  1. Positive Interdependence
    - students should need to work together, assigning rolls helps this
  2. Individual Accountability
    - all students should "pull their weight", public performance helps this
  3. Equal Participation
    - shy students and outgoing students should have equal activity time
  4. Simultaneous Interaction
    - as many students should be engaged as possible at any time

Rewarding Children when they do well or as a kind of bribe for good behaviour is a poor strategy. See "Punished By Rewards" by Alfie Kohn. Celebration is another matter. A Celebration of individual and especially group accomplishments can build class identity and foster motivation. Rewards are based on scarcity and sow the seeds of competition. Celebration often involves a ceremony or ritual and is a joyous coming together.


Think about the games we played. What was the main purpose of each game? How did the games involve P.I.E.S.?

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